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Chiratidzo cheGehena muDante's Divine Comedy

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Chiratidzo cheGehena muDante's Divine Comedy

Dante paBoat - Rwendo rwaDante - Mufananidzo naGustave Dore kuenda kuCanto III: Kusvika kwaCharon - Wiki Source

Kwemazana emakore, Dante's Divine Comedy yave ichionekwa semhando yedimikira yerwendo kuburikidza negehena pasi, uye kuumbwa kwayo kwezvikamu zvitatu kwave kunenge chiratidzo chekurongeka kwaMwari. Literary aesthetics yakasimudza Divine Comedy kusvika pachinhanho. nyaya isina nguva... Zvichipa zvakananga zvehupenyu hwema heroes ake, hazvibviri kuverenga basa pasina analogies nenyika yemazuva ano. Ndinofunga kuti chizvarwa chipi nechipi chiri kuedza kupinda muchirevo chenhetembo chinofanira kunge chakasangana nemanzwiro akafanana. Uye kunyange isu tiri kwemazana emakore takaparadzana kubva pakusikwa kwebasa, uye kubvira ipapo nyika yakachinja zvikuru, pane imwe nzvimbo yakadzika mukati unonzwa kuti tsika dzinozivikanwa nepakati pekare dziripo munguva yedu. Dai Dante akangoerekana apinda muzana ramakore rechiXNUMX mushure mekusiya hupenyu hwepashure perufu, aizowana vanhu vakafanana nevaakasangana navo muGehena. Nyaya yekuti budiriro yemazuva ano yakasiyana zvachose neiyo nyanduri aiziva pachake hazvirevi kuti vanhu vavewo vari nani. Tinoziva zvakawanda, tiri kusimukira nekukurumidza, tichigadzira matekinoroji matsva ... Asi nyika ichiri kutarisana nehutsinye, kubatwa chibharo, mhirizhonga uye kuderera. Isu, zvakare, hatisi vatorwa kuzvivi zviduku izvo vanhu vakapfidza mu "Divine Comedy".

Chiito "Divine Comedy"

Action comedy zvinoitika pakati pehupenyu hwemunyori... Rwendo rwaDante kuenda kurufu rwunotanga pahusiku hweMaundy China kusvika Chishanu Chakanaka, Kubvumbi 7, 1300. Danho rayo rokutanga nderokuti "Gehena". Kudzika kwegamba mukuhwanda kunogona kuonekwa sekuzvipira, kuedza kwevanhu. Dante anoenda kunzvimbo yepasi mukambani Virgil - nyanzvi yekare. Virgil, mutumwa weNyasha dzaMwari, anoonekwa panguva yakaoma kune mupilgrim, achimuponesa kubva murufu rwenyama nerwetsika. Anomupa imwe nzira, nzira kuburikidza nepasi - iye pachake semutungamiri. Virgil, muhedheni akaberekwa Kristu asati avapo, haakwanisi kusvika kudenga. Iyewo haagone kupukunyuka uye kubuda muPreada. Naizvozvo, parwendo rwake rwapashure, anoperekedza Dante. Beatrice... Kudzungaira muumambo hutatu huri kunze kwenyika kuchaporesa mweya wenyanduri uye kumuita akakodzera kumuratidza zvakarongwa naMwari kuti vanhu vose vaponeswe. Pakupedzisira, Virgil mweya "waiziva zvose," Beatrice, mweya wakaponeswa, uye naizvozvo zvose zvakaratidzwa kwaari kuburikidza nekufungisisa kwaMwari. Nekudaro, Dante haasi ega parwendo urwu, akafuridzira varairidzi uye akazvionera ega nyasha. Zvinoita sechiratidzo chekuti akasarudzwa semutungamiri wemweya wenyika yose panguva iyoyo uye pamwe kune zvizvarwa zvese zvichauya. Nokudaro, ruzivo rwake rwoupenyu hwapashure porufu rwaigona kudzidzisa vanhu nzira yokurarama nayo nechiremera uye ipapo kuguma kudenga.

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Chiratidzo cheGehena muDante's Divine Comedy

Cerberus inochengetedza gehena - mufananidzo naGustave Dore - wiki sosi

Iyo yeVamwari Kunyemwerera ine zvikamu zvitatuinoenderana nenyika nhatu - aripo Gehena, Purigatori uye Denga... Chikamu chega chega chine nziyo nhatu pamwe nerwiyo rwenhanganyaya yenhetembo yese - inokwana zana. Gahena (funnel yakakura pakati penyika) yakakamurwa kuita gumi vertebrae uye atria... Umambo hwakakamurwa kuva zvikamu zvakawanda kwazvo Purigatori - gomo refu, rakareba pakati pegungwa muSouthern Hemisphere, uye ari pamusoro Paradhiso yepasi, ndiko kuti, matenga ane gumi (maererano negadziriro yaPtolemy) uye Epyrum. Vatadzi vanodyidzana mugehena zvichienderana nekuti vane mhosva here yekusazvidzora weti, kubata chibharo, kana kubiridzira. Avo vanopfidza muPurigatori vanokamura maererano nokuti rudo rwavo rwakanaka here kana kuti rwakaipa. Midzimu yeParadhiso yakakamurwa kuva inoshingaira uye yokufungisisa, kuchitsamira pakuti batano yavo yapasi yakadzikatidza kuda kwavo Mwari here kana kuti rudo urwu rwakabudirira muupenyu hunoshingaira kana kuti hwokufungisisa.

Zvose zvinofungidzirwa zvakanyatsojeka: muzvikamu zvitatu kune nhamba yakafanana yemitsara, imwe neimwe inoguma neshoko rokuti "asterisk". Zvakafanana neuzivi hwakakodzera hwehupenyu, hunovaka nyika pamisimboti ine musoro. Saka nei kuine vanhu vakaipa vakawanda kudaro munharaunda iyi? Zvingangoitika, izvi zvinokonzerwa nekukosha kwehunhu uye basa rakakosha remasangano aya mumafungiro echiKristu.

Hell Vision - madenderedzwa

Isai tariro, imi munopinda [pano].

Gehena rinowedzera pasi pevhu. Gedhi rinotungamira kwariri, kuseri kwaro kune Pre-Gehena, rakapatsanurwa kubva kuGehena chaiko nerwizi rweAcheron. Mweya yevakafa inotamisirwa kune rumwe rutivi naCharon. Nyanduri anosanganisa akasununguka zvidzidzo zvebhaibheri nengano kuita chinhu chimwe chete. Nokudaro, tinowana mugehena nzizi dzakadai seAcheron, Styx, Phlegeton uye Cocytus. Kutonga mugehena kunoitwa naMinos, Charon, Cerberus, Pluto, Flagia, Fury, Medusa, Minotaur, Centaurs, Harpies uye mamwe mhuka dzemubhaibheri, pamwe naLucifer uye neruzhinji rwemadhimoni, imbwa, nyoka, shato, nezvimwe. Gehena pacharo rakakamurwa kuva gehena repamusoro nerezasi.... Yakakamurwawo kuita madenderedzwa (cer chi), matanhatu acho ari mugehena repamusoro.

Chiratidzo cheGehena muDante's Divine Comedy

Minos anotonga vanhu mugehena - Gustave Dore - wiki source

Denderedzwa rekutanga

Denderedzwa rekutanga, rinonzi Limbo, rine mweya yevanhu vakuru. Sezvo vakanga vasina kubhabhatidzwa, vaisagona kuenda kudenga.

Denderedzwa rechipiri

Denderedzwa rechipiri, rakachengetedzwa naMinos, inzvimbo yekupfidza kune avo vaisagona kudzora hunhu.

Denderedzwa rechitatu, rechina uye rechishanu

Mudenderedzwa rechitatu Dante akaisa vatadzi vane mhosva yekudyisa, mune yechina - nhubu nevatengesi, uye yechishanu - vasingadzoreki mukutsamwa.

Chiratidzo cheGehena muDante's Divine Comedy

Yechitatu denderedzwa regehena - Stradan's illustration - wiki sosi

Chiratidzo cheGehena muDante's Divine Comedy

Denderedzwa rechina regehena - mifananidzo naGustave Dore - wiki sosi

Chiratidzo cheGehena muDante's Divine Comedy

Denderedzwa rechishanu regehena - Stradan's illustration - wiki source

Denderedzwa rechitanhatu

Denderedzwa rechitanhatu rinoratidzwa seguta. Iri ndiro guta raSatani, mukova wakachengetedzwa nemadhimoni akaipa kwazvo, uyo kunyange Virgil haana simba. Mudenderedzwa rechitanhatu, mweya yevanyengeri inotendeuka.

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Denderedzwa rechinomwe ndiko kuvhurwa kweGehena rezasi.

Denderedzwa rechinomwe rinovhura Gehena rezasi uye rakakamurwa kuita nzvimbo nhatu (gironi). Iyi inzvimbo yekutambudzika kusingaperi kune avo vakazviuraya uye vakatyora mitemo yechisikigo. Kune mhondi, kuzviuraya, vanomhura uye vanotora mari pano, vachitungamirirwa naMinotaur pachake.

Denderedzwa rechisere

Denderedzwa rechisere rakakamurwa kuita gumi bolgis. Iyi inzvimbo yekurangwa kusingaperi kune avo nenzira ipi neipi vakashungurudza kuvimba kwevamwe vanhu: pimps, seductresses, flatterers, vafemberi, vanobiridzira, vanyengeri, mbavha, vapi vamazano venhema, schismatics, vanokurudzira, vatengesi, nezvimwe.

Yepfumbamwe denderedzwa

Denderedzwa rechipfumbamwe inzvimbo inotambudzwa vatadzi vakuru, iyi ndiyo nzvimbo iri kuresa, pakati pegehena. Mudenderedzwa umu ndimo munogara mhondi, vatengesi kunyika yavo, shamwari nemhuri. Iyi ndiyo mweya yevanhu vakatengesa vamwe hupenyu hwavo hwese kuti vabatsirike.

Gehena humambo hwerima nekupererwa, uko kuchema, kutukwa, kuvenga uye kunyengera. Hurongwa hwekuranga hunoenderana nerudzi rwezvivi. Kune rima rinogara riripo, dzimwe nguva rinovhiringwa nemirazvo, inova mudziyo wekuranga. Madutu, mvura, mhepo, madziva zvinosiyanisa mhepo yenzvimbo iyi. Vanoziva nezvekugadzira kwaDante munzvimbo dzese dze "Divine Comedy" vanowana kutsoropodza kwakanyanya kweItari uye nzanga yenguva iyoyo. Kutonga kwaDante kune vamwe vake kwakakasharara asi kusina rusaruro. Chiono chokusateerera mutemo chinoparira kuparara kwenzanga chinoonekawo muhero. Manzwiro ekusemburwa kwezuva ranhasi anoita kuti mudetembi ayemure zvekare. Saka, kubva kumweya mikuru iri muberere regehena, iyo yakagamuchira nyasha dzaMwari kuburikidza nehunhu hwayo hwepanyama, tinouya kune vatsvene vakaitira nyika zvakanaka zvakawanda. Saka, kana Dante akashandisa zvidzidzo zvehusiku hwegehena, aigona kuva mutungamiriri akanaka uye akarurama, mutongi, mutungamiri, nezvimwewo, achifurira vanhu zvakanaka uye anokwanisa kusunungura zvakanakisisa mavari.

Divine Comedy Characters

Saka Cleopatra anogona kuona; kusungwa

Elena, chikonzero chekuwa kweTrojans;

Ndiri kuona Achilles akashinga hetman,

Ndiani akarwa kusvika pekupedzisira nekuda kwerudo

Ndinogona kuona Paris uye kuona Tristan;

Chiuru chakarasika mukupenga kwerudo

Pano ndinoziva mweya kubva mumuromo maIshe wangu.

Uye pandakateerera kuna Tenzi kusvika kumagumo,

Zvandakaoneswa nemadzimai nevarume

Tsitsi dzakandikurira, ndikaramba ndakamira ndichivhiringika.

Chinhu chakakosha chemasimba muThe Divine Comedy nhamba dzevanhu dzinozivikanwa nemunyori kubva munhoroondo yekare neyemazuva ano, uye Dante pachake munhu mupenyu anopinda mavari kuunza ndangariro kuupenyu. Kana mweya wanyanduri wasangana nemimwe mweya, manzwiro anotora chimiro. Mumashoko omudetembi, manzwiro anopikisana anonzwa: tsitsi, rudo, rudo rwevatenzi, tsitsi, kuzvidza. Kuvapo kwemunhu mupenyu pakati pemweya yakatukwa kunoita kuti vakanganwe nezvekutambudzika kwechinguva uye vatakurwe munyika yendangariro. Sokunge vave kudzokera kuzvishuwo zvekare. Haisi zvipoko zvose zvairatidzwa sevatadzi vane utsinye. Vazhinji vavo vanochengeta hupfumi hwemanzwiro. Kune kunyange rough scenes. Nyanduri ane chekuita neizvi zvose anobatwawo moyo.

Tine chikwereti ichi hupfumi hwekurudziro mugehena kune dzakatevedzana dzezvikamu (Francesca, Farinata, Pierre della Vigna, Ulysses, Count Ugolino nevamwe) vane simba rinoratidza rakadaro risingawanikwe mumifananidzo kubva kuPurigatori kana Paradhiso. Nzvimbo dzakasiyana-siyana dzevatambi vanokanganwa nezvekutambudzika kwavo pavanosangana nanyanduri zvakafanana nezviitiko kubva muchikamu chekurapa kwepfungwa. Saka sei Dante aisakwanisa kuve chiremba wepfungwa, chiremba wepfungwa, murapi, chiremba, nezvimwe?

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Mugehena, mudetembi akapawo muviri une chiremera uye unoremekedzwa, wakavharwa mukunyarara uye kuisa pfungwa. Kukomba uye runyararo zvakaperekedza mupilgrim kuburikidza nedenderedzwa rekutanga regehena. Kwaiva naHomer, Horace, Ovid, Lucan, Caesar, Hector, Aeneas, Aristotle, Socrates naPlato. Chaunga ichi chakapa nyanduri ruremekedzo rwekuva mumwe we "masimba enyika ino." Zita rakapiwa nevachenjeri venyika yenguva iyoyo imhando yekusimudzira uye kukurudzira kwehupenyu hwekugadzira, ruzivo rwezvakavanzika zvenyika, kusangana nevanhu uye kugadzira mabasa makuru kune zvizvarwa.

MuRwiyo rweGehena reChishanu, munyori anozivisa muverengi nechikamu chechipiri chegomba rakadzika-dzika, umo mweya inotambudzwa nokuda kwezvivi zvakaitwa nokuziva uye nokuzvidira. Mhomho yezvipoko isingaperi inoyerera ichienda kuna nyanduri, mhere mhere nekuchema kwevakaramwa zvinonzwika kumativi ose. Vanosuruvarisa vanokandwa kumusoro nechamupupuri chisina tsitsi, chinofananidzira zvishuvo zvinotambudza vanhu. Dante's interlocutor, Franz de Rimini, anobuda muboka revanhu uye anotaura nyaya inokosha yakaitika panguva yehondo dzefratricidal. Mudetembi akanyatsodzidza nyaya inoshamisa yevadikani vane utsinye mumakore ekupedzisira ehupenyu hwake naGuidon Novel, tete vake vaive Francisca. Francisca akazvarwa pakati pezana ramakore rechi XNUMX. Akanga akaroorwa nezvikonzero zvezvematongerwe enyika (kudzivirira hondo yemhuri) kune mutongi akaipa uye akaremara weRimini, Gianciotta Malatesta. Zvisinei, akadanana naPaola, munun’una womurume wake, akanga atoroorwa uye aiva nevana vaviri. Rimwe zuva murume waFrancisca akavabata muhudzvinyiriri ndokuvauraya vari vaviri vachipenga. Izvi zvakakonzera kunyomba muRimini. Kuratidzwa kweiyi nyaya yechokwadi mubasa raDante kunoperekedzwa nekufungisisa pamusoro pekutonga kusingaperi kwaMwari. Musangano pakati paFrancesco naPaolo une zvinoshamisa. Iyi ndiyo chete nguva apo mudetembi ari mugehena akafenda chaizvo nekuda kwechiitiko chekutambudzika kwerudo kwaFrancisco naPaolo. Uku kunzwisiswa kwaDante kwakakosha kunomuisa muzvinhanho zvevanhu vakachenjera, vanoverenga, vanonzwira tsitsi uye vane mutsa. Nokudaro, hapana chinomudzivisa kuva mutungamiri wemweya wechitendero chipi nechipi, sangano, sangano remitemo, murevereri, mudzidzisi, nezvimwewo. Mushure mokusiya mushure mekufa.

Zviitiko zvehero zvinorwadza zvikuru zvokuti zvinogona kugoverana navanhu vakawanda. Mumwe mudetembi ari oga haakwanisi kuzvishandisa zvizere. Kudai, kunyanguvezvo, akanga ane mavara omutungamiriri akanaka nomurongi, mibato yake yaigona kubetsera kuderedza zvimiro zvavatadzi, mhondi, vadzvinyiriri, vabati chibharo, makororo, zvichingodaro. Zvichida nyika yomuMiddle Ages ingadai isina kuva yakasuruvara zvakadaro.

Mabhuku:

1. Barbie M., Dante. Warsaw, 1965.

2. Dante Alighieri, Divine Comedy (iye akasarudzwa). Wroclaw, Warsaw, Krakow, Gdansk 1977.

3. Ogog Z., Kuimba kwaFrancis muDante's "Gehena". "Polonistika" 1997 Nha. 2, p. 90-93.

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