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Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

Txheem:

Tej zaum, txhua tus neeg paub amber. Nws yog siv tsis tau tsuas yog nyob rau hauv hniav nyiaj hniav kub thiab haberdashery, tab sis kuj nyob rau hauv cov tshuaj, kev lag luam thiab woodworking. Tsis tas li ntawd, amber kuj nrov nyob rau hauv ntau qhov txawv txawv - lithotherapy thiab khawv koob. Ua tsaug rau nws lub zog ntuj, nws pab tiv thaiv qee yam kab mob thiab cuam tshuam lub neej ntawm nws tus tswv, coj nws mus rau qhov zoo. Tab sis thawj yam ua ntej.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

piav qhia

Contrary to nrov kev ntseeg, amber tsis yog ib tug ntxhia thiab tsis tsim muaju. Nyob rau hauv qhov tseeb, nws yog petrified resin, ib tug resinous tuab pawg uas sawv tawm ntawm kev txiav nyob rau hauv ancient coniferous ntoo.

Keeb kwm

Thaum Antiquity, ntau tus kws tshawb fawb tsuas yog xav tias lub hauv paus chiv keeb ntawm lub pob zeb no yog txuam nrog cov resin. Aristotle, Theofast, Pliny tus Txwj Laug hais txog qhov no.

Twb tau nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua XNUMXth, qhov no tau ua pov thawj los ntawm Swedish naturalist thiab kws kho mob Carl Linnaeus thiab Lavxias teb sab natural scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. Nws yog lawv leej twg paub tseeb tias amber yog cov resin ntawm ancient coniferous ntoo.

Nyob rau hauv 1807, Lavxias teb sab chemist, mineralogist, geologist, kawm ntawv ntawm lub Imperial Academy ntawm Sciences Vasily Severegin officially muab ib tug scientific piav qhia, keeb kwm thiab kev faib ntawm amber.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

Etymology

Lub npe ntawm lub pob zeb muaj ntau yam nthuav tseeb.

Piv txwv li, Fabkis "lub npe" ntawm amber - ambre - los ntawm Arabic ʿanbar. Ib pawg neeg ntawm pawg neeg Semitic ethno-linguistic uas nyob hauv lub xeev ntawm Middle East thiab North Africa tau hnov ​​​​zoo heev rau lub pob zeb: lawv ntseeg tias nws yog lwg uas tau poob saum ntuj ceeb tsheej thiab tawv.

Cov Germans hu ua amber Bernstein, uas txhais tau tias "flammable pob zeb". Qhov no yog qhov laj thawj heev - cov khoom ignites sai heev thiab tsim ib tug zoo nkauj nplaim taws, thaum emitting ib tug qab ntxiag tsw. Lub npe no tau kis mus rau thaj chaw ntawm lwm lub tebchaws, xws li Belarus thiab Ukraine. Nyob ntawd lub pob zeb tau txais "lub npe" burshtyn.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

Cov Greeks thaum ub tau nyiam pob zeb rau nws lub peev xwm los ua hluav taws xob. Lawv hu ua qhov tsim ib tug electron. Nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb uas lo lus "hluav taws xob" los ntawm lub npe no - ἤλεκτρον . Los ntawm txoj kev, nyob rau hauv ancient Russia, amber muaj ib tug zoo xws li lub npe, tab sis ib tug me ntsis txawv spelling - hluav taws xob los yog electron. 

Txawm li cas los xij, lo lus "amber" yog tej zaum qiv los ntawm Lithuanians - gintaras.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

Cov Ntaos Ntaus

Raws li tau hais los saum no, amber tsis yog cov ntxhia, nws tsis tsim muaju. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, nws muaj cov yam ntxwv zoo uas tso cai rau koj los tsim ntau yam hniav nyiaj hniav kub, cov khoom dai, cov nyees khawm, hlaws, thiab lwm yam nrog nws.

  • ntxoov - los ntawm daj ntseg daj mus rau brownish; liab, qee zaum tsis muaj xim, mis nyuj dawb, nrog ntsuab dhau;
  • gloss - resinous;
  • tsawg hardness - 2-2,5;
  • hluav taws xob los ntawm kev sib txhuam;
  • ignites sai sai;
  • Thaum cuam tshuam nrog oxygen, nws yog oxidized, uas ua rau muaj kev hloov pauv tsis yog nyob rau hauv ntxoov ntxoo, tab sis kuj nyob rau hauv muaj pes tsawg leeg.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

Ntau yam

Amber muaj ntau ntau yam. Ua ntej, nws muab faib ua fossil thiab semi-fossil. Cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov tsiaj no yog txiav txim siab feem ntau los ntawm cov xwm txheej thiab lub sijhawm ntawm lawv qhov tshwm sim.

Qhov thib ob, ib qho tseem ceeb rau qhov sib txawv yog tus naj npawb fragility. Nws yog suav nrog cov cuab yeej tshwj xeeb - microhardness meter, suav hauv grams, thiab txawv ntawm qhov tshwj xeeb.

Thib peb, amber kuj tuaj yeem muaj qhov sib txawv, uas cuam tshuam nrog qhov tsis sib xws ntawm cov voids hauv nws lub cev. Rau lub hauv paus no, lub pob zeb yuav raug hu ua txawv:

  • pob tshab - qhov tsis muaj voids, qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntawm pob zeb;
  • huab - translucent;
  • bastard - opaque;
  • pob txha - opaque, reminiscent ntawm ivory nyob rau hauv cov xim;
  • foamy - opaque, ntxoov ntxoo - boiling dawb.

Amber kuj txawv ntawm nws cov xim. Kuj ceeb tias, lub pob zeb tuaj yeem pleev xim rau hauv txhua qhov ntxoov ntxoo los ntawm spectrum. Nws tag nrho yog nyob ntawm tej yam kev mob, nrog rau muaj ntau yam impurities nyob rau hauv lub cob. Piv txwv li, algae tuaj yeem pleev xim rau nws ntsuab, qee cov zaub mov "muab" rau nws cov xim zoo nkauj, thiab cov xuab zeb me ntsis darkens lub pob zeb thiab muab amber ib tug reddish sheen.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

Qhov chaw yug

Qhov tseeb, amber deposits tuaj yeem muab faib ua pawg: keeb kwm thiab niaj hnub.

keeb kwm

Thaum xub thawj, cov tawv tawv tawv ntawm cov ntoo coniferous tau pom nyob rau ntawm Jutland ceg av qab teb (hnub no Denmark), tab sis qhov tso nyiaj tau sai sai. Tom qab ntawd cov tub lag luam pib tig mus rau Amber ntug dej hiav txwv - ib txwm lub npe ntawm sab qab teb sab hnub tuaj ntawm ntug dej hiav txwv Baltic, nyob rau sab hnub poob ntawm thaj av Kaliningrad ntawm Russia.

Hauv ntiaj teb

Muaj ob lub xeev amber-cov kabmob loj hauv ntiaj teb:

  • Eurasian, suav nrog Ukraine, Russia, Ltalis, Myanmar, Indonesia, kob ntawm Sri Lanka;
  • Asmeskas - Dominican koom pheej, Mexico, North America, Greenland.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

Свойства

Amber yog lub pob zeb muaj txiaj ntsig thiab nws cov txiaj ntsig ntawm tib neeg lub cev tau raug tshawb fawb pom tseeb.

tej yam yees siv

Amber yog lub cim ntawm kev zoo siab thiab lub neej ntev. Nws tej yam yees siv muaj ntau haiv neeg. Yog li, lawv suav nrog:

  • tiv thaiv tus tswv ntawm teeb meem, xwm txheej, kev ua khawv koob (qhov muag phem, kev puas tsuaj, kev hlub spell, foom phem);
  • nthuav tawm lub peev xwm muaj tswv yim, ua tiav nrog kev tshoov siab thiab kev xav tsim;
  • txhim khu kev xav thiab kev pom;
  • pab koj ua tiav koj lub hom phiaj;
  • coj koob hmoov, hmoov zoo, kev xyiv fab, kev cia siab;
  • haum rau cov poj niam cev xeeb tub, pab nrog kev yug menyuam;
  • ntshai tej dab phem;
  • tiv thaiv cov txij nkawm los ntawm kev hais lus ntxhi, kev khib, kev ntxeev siab, kev nkag siab yuam kev.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

Kev kho mob

Tsuas muaj cov lus dab neeg hais txog kev kho mob ntawm amber. Remarkably, cov nyhuv no tau ntev lawm scientific proven thiab yog ntse siv los ntawm lwm yam tshuaj kws tshwj xeeb - lithotherapists.

Nws ntseeg tau tias tsis muaj cov kab mob zoo li no uas amber tsis tuaj yeem tshem tawm, thiab cov lus no tseem ceeb rau niaj hnub no. Yog li, nws cov txiaj ntsig kho muaj xws li:

  • tshem tawm mob taub hau thiab mob hniav;
  • favorably cuam tshuam rau kev ua haujlwm ntawm lub plawv thiab cov hlab ntsha;
  • pab nrog cov kab mob sib koom ua ke, varicose leeg;
  • nres cov txheej txheem ntawm hemolysis;
  • txhim kho metabolism, digestive system;
  • zoo cuam tshuam rau lub paj hlwb, ob lub raum, txoj hnyuv;
  • tshem tawm kev ntxhov siab thiab smoothes nws cov teebmeem;
  • tiv thaiv kab mob khaub thuas, mob khaub thuas;
  • qhov txhab kho thiab rov tsim cov nyhuv;
  • saturates hlwb nrog oxygen;
  • slows cov txheej txheem aging ntawm daim tawv nqaij;
  • nyob rau hauv cov me nyuam - yooj yim txheej txheem ntawm teething, txhim kho kev noj qab haus huv.

Cov khoom xyaw tseem ceeb yog succinic acid, uas paub txog nws cov txiaj ntsig zoo.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

Daim ntawv thov

Cov cheeb tsam ntawm kev siv amber yog ntau haiv neeg:

  • Kev lag luam hniav nyiaj hniav kub. Ua ntau yam hniav nyiaj hniav kub: hlaws, rings, tsej, brooches, pendants, bracelets thiab ntau ntxiv. Qee lub sij hawm kab, plaub yog suav nrog hauv pob zeb, npuas tsim sab hauv - cov khoom zoo li qub thiab elegant.
  • Haberdashery - nyees khawm, combs, hairpins, hmoov thawv, ntxig rau ntawm txoj siv sia, hnab nyiaj, hnab, hnab ev khoom.
  • Cov tshuaj. Kev tsim cov thawv kho mob, cov cuab yeej siv. Nrov siv nyob rau hauv cosmetology.
  • Kev ua ntoo. Amber-raws li cov kua roj vanish tau siv los ua cov ntoo tiav. Lawv tau "tshem" qhov chaw ntawm cov nkoj, rooj tog zaum, suab paj nruag.
  • Ua liaj ua teb. Hauv qhov no, succinic acid yog siv. Nws yog siv los kho cov noob txhawm rau txhim kho cov qoob loo thiab germination raws li ib tug stimulant biogenic.
  • Tsiaj txhu thiab nqaij qaib - nyob rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm cov khoom noj ntxiv.
  • Ntau yam khoom siv hauv tsev - ntim, candlesticks, tais diav, chess, caskets, figurines, watches, iav. Cov duab thiab cov cim tseem embroidered los ntawm pob zeb.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov

Leej twg suits lub zodiac kos npe

Raws li astrologers, amber yog zoo rau cov cim ntawm hluav taws - Leo, Sagittarius, Aries. Nws tsis pom zoo kom hnav cov khoom nrog lub pob zeb tsuas yog rau Taurus.

Nws tseem ntseeg tau hais tias tus kheej amulets thiab talismans nrog rau cov khoom siv tawv tawv yuav tsum tsis txhob muab rau cov neeg txawv teb chaws kom cov khoom tsis poob nws lub zog.

Amber - lub qhov muag daj ntawm tus Tsov